What is Intenet ?
By the turn of the century, information, including access to the Internet, will be the basis for personal, economic, and political advancement. The popular name for the Internet is the information superhighway. Whether you want to find the latest financial news, browse through library catalogs, exchange information with colleagues, or join in a lively political debate, the Internet is the tool that will take you beyond telephones, faxes, and isolated computers to a burgeoning networked information frontier.
The Internet supplements the traditional tools you use to gather information, Data Graphics, News and correspond with other people. Used skillfully, the Internet shrinks the world and brings information, expertise, and knowledge on nearly every subject imaginable straight to your computer.
What is the Internet?
The Internet links are computer networks all over the world so that users can share resources and communicate with each other. Some computers, have direct access to all the facilities on the Internet such as the universities. And other computers, eg privately-owned ones, have indirect links through a commercial service provider, who offers some or all of the Internet facilities. In order to be connected to Internet, you must go through service suppliers. Many options are offered with monthly rates. Depending on the option chosen, access time may vary.
The Internet is what we call a metanetwork, that is, a network of networks that spans the globe. It's impossible to give an exact count of the number of networks or users that comprise the Internet, but it is easily in the thousands and millions respectively. The Internet employs a set of standardized protocols which allow for the sharing of resources among different kinds of computers that communicate with each other on the network. These standards, sometimes referred to as the Internet Protocol Suite, are the rules that developers adhere to when creating new functions for the Internet.
The Internet is also what we call a distributed system; there is no central archives. Technically, no one runs the Internet. Rather, the Internet is made up of thousands of smaller networks. The Internet thrives and develops as its many users find new ways to create, display and retrieve the information that constitutes the Internet.
History & Development of the Internet:
In its infancy, the Internet was originally conceived by the Department of Defense as a way to protect government communications systems in the event of a military strike. The original network, dubbed ARPANet (for the Advanced Research Projects Agency that developed it) evolved into a communications channel among contractors, military personnel, and university researchers who were contributing to ARPA projects.
The network employed a set of standard protocols to create an effective way for these people to communicate and share data with each other.
ARPAnet's popularity continued to spread among researchers, and in the 1980's the National Science Foundation, whose NSFNet, linked several high speed computers, took charge of the what had come to be known as the Internet.
By the late 1980's, thousands of cooperating networks were participating in the Internet.
In 1991, the U.S. High Performance Computing Act established the NREN (National Research & Education Network). NREN's goal was to develop and maintain high-speed networks for research and education, and to investigate commercial uses for the Internet.
The rest, as they say, is history in the making. The Internet has been improved through the developments of such services as Gopher and the World Wide Web.
Even though the Internet is predominantly thought of as a research oriented network, it continues to grow as an informational, creative, and commercial resource every day and all over the world.
Who Pays for the Internet?
There is no clear answer to this question because the Internet is not one "thing", it's many things. No one central agency exists that charges individual Internet users. Rather, individuals and institutions who use the Internet pay a local or regional Internet service provider for their share of services. And in turn, those smaller Internet service providers might purchase services from an even larger network. So basically, everyone who uses the Internet in some way pays for part of it.
what makes the internet work?
The unique thing about the Internet is that it allows many different computers to connect and talk to each other. This is possible because of a set of standards, known as protocols, that govern the transmission of data over the network: TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol). Most people who use the Internet aren't so interested in details related to these protocols. They do, however, want to know what they can do on the Internet and how to do it effectively.
The Client/Server Model:
The most popular Internet tools operate as client/server systems. You're running a program called a Web client. This piece of software displays documents for you and carries out your requests. If it becomes necessary to connect to another type of service--say, to set up a Telnet session, or to download a file--your Web client will take care of this, too. Your Web client connects (or "talks") to a Web server to ask for information on your behalf.
The Web server is a computer running another type of Web software which provides data, or "serves up" an information resource to your Web client.
All of the basic Internet tools--including Telnet, FTP, Gopher, and the World Wide Web--are based upon the cooperation of a client and one or more servers. In each case, you interact with the client program and it manages the details of how data is presented to you or the way in which you can look for resources. In turn, the client interacts with one or more servers where the information resides. The server receives a request, processes it, and sends a result, without having to know the details of your computer system, because the client software on your computer system is handling those details.
The advantage of the client/server model lies in distributing the work so that each tool can focus or specialize on particular tasks: the server serves information to many users while the client software for each user handles the individual user's interface and other details of the requests and results.
The Use of Local Clients:
Every computer should be equipped with basic client software packages that allow you to perform functions such as electronic mail, Telnet, Gopher, and FTP.
Electronic mail on the internet:
Electronic mail, or e-mail, is probably the most popular and widely used Internet function. E-mail, email, or just mail, is a fast and efficient way to communicate with friends or colleagues. You can communicate with one person at a time or thousands; you can receive and send files and other information. You can even subscribe to electronic journals and newsletters. You can send an e-mail message to a person in the same building or on the other side of the world.
How does E-mail Work?
E-mail is an asynchronous form of communication, meaning that the person whom you want to read your message doesn't have to be available at the precise moment you send your message. This is a great convenience for both you and the recipient.
On the other hand, the telephone, which is a synchronous communication medium, requires that both you and your listener be on the line at the same time in order for you to communicate (unless you leave a voice message). It will be impossible to discuss all the details of the many e-mail packages available to Internet users.
Fortunately, however, most of these programs share basic functionality which allow you to:
*send and receive mail messages
*save your messages in a file
*print mail messages
*reply to mail messages
*attach a file to a mail message
Reading an Internet Address:
To use Internet e-mail successfully, you must understand how the names and addresses for computers and people on the Internet are formatted. Mastering this technique is just as important as knowing how to use telephone numbers or postal addresses correctly.
Fortunately, after you get the hang of them, Internet addresses are usually no more complex than phone numbers and postal addresses.
And, like those methods of identifying a person, an organization, or a geographic location--usually by a telephone number or a street address--Internet addresses have rules and conventions for use.
Sample Internet Address: firstname.lastname@example.org
The Internet address has three parts:
1.a user name [custcare in the example above]
2.an "at" sign (@)
3.the address of the user's mail server [aucegypt.edu in the example above] Sometimes it's useful to read an Internet address (like email@example.com) or a domain name from right to left because it helps you determine information about the source of the address.
An address like 201B6DQF@asu.edu doesn't tell me much about the person who's sending me a message, but I can deduce that the sender is affiliated with an educational institution because of the suffix edu.
The right-most segment of domain names usually adhere to the naming conventions listed below:
EDU Educational sites in the United States
COM Commercial sites in the United States
GOV Government sites in the United States
NET Network administrative organizations
MIL Military sites in the United States
ORG Organizations in the U.S. not covered by the categories above (e.g., non-profit orginaizations).
.xx where xx is the country code (e.g., .eg for Egypt).
Once you've become adept at using e-mail, you may want to communicate with others on the Internet who share your interests. Newsgroups are one way to do this; the other is through an electronic discussion group. An electronic discussion is a group of persons who have come together to discuss a particular topic via e-mail. There are several methods that network users can use to participate in electronic discussions; however, the basic purpose is to bring together persons with similar interests to share information, ideas, problems, solutions, and opinions. Since an electronic discussion is conducted by e-mail, it's commonly called a mailing list.
If you find yourself interested in a topic, you can subscribe to a suitable mailing list. From then on, any message sent to the mailing list is automatically distributed as electronic mail to you--as well as to all previously subscribed members of that particular discussion. The beauty of a mailing list is that traffic (the mail generated by that list) covers a specific topic and the
mail it generates comes straight to your electronic mailbox, without any extra work on your part. There are thousands of mailing lists operating on the Internet, dedicated to myriad topics. Some are created to serve local needs only (i.e., a list for the members of a regional computer user group), while many are open to anyone on the network. There are discussions on professional topics, vocational subjects, and topics of personal interest. You can roughly separate the thousands of mailing lists available on the Internet into the following groups:
Types of discussion lists:
Moderated vs. Unmoderated Lists
Mailing lists can be moderated or unmoderated. The distinction is whether messages are automatically forwarded to all subscribers (unmoderated) or whether a moderator (a human being) first screens and perhaps combines similar messages before sending them to subscribers (moderated).
Open vs. Closed Lists
Electronic discussions can also be "open" or "closed." Anyone can subscribe to an open discussion, but a closed discussion is limited to a particular group of persons, for example, those in a particular professional field.
Introduction to network news:
Network News (sometimes referred to as Usenet News) is a service comprised of several thousand electronic discussions providing users an effective way to share information with others on just about any topic.
If you're unclear about the concept of Network News, it's helpful to think about a bulletin
board that you might see on campus.
Here, one might find posted messages advertising a futon for sale, asking for students to join a math study group. In the newsgroup environment, the same kind of process take place:
User X may access a newsgroup on a particular topic and post a message, question, or respond to a previously posted message, and anyone accessing that newsgroup would then be able to see User X's message.
Network News newsgroups provide this same kind of forum online, where users have access to the messages posted by all other users of that newsgroup.
Network News has been described as an "international meeting place" where you're likely to find a discussion going on just about anything.
How Does Network News work?
Messages posted on Network News newsgroups are sent from host computer to host computer all over the world, using the network news transfer protocol.
Because Network News newsgroups are located on one server, Network News is a very efficient way to share information that might otherwise be disseminated to several individual users.
This way, several people can read a given newsgroup message, but the host system stores only one copy of it.
Newsgroups: What's in a Name?
As mentioned before, Network News is essentially made up of newsgroups, each newsgroup a collection of messages focusing on a related theme.
You can probably find a newsgroup on any topic, no matter how arcane or bizarre.
A newsgroup's name gives you a good idea of that group's focus, and also illustrates the hierarchical naming scheme given to newsgroups.
Newsgroups with the prefix comp, for example, are for computer-related topics.
After the initial prefix, you'll see an additional series of names assigned to the newsgroup that tell its specific concern: Note the following examples:
comp.mac.performa for "computers--macintosh--performas"
rec.auto.antique for "recreation--autos--antiques"
alt.backrubs for "alternative--backrubs"
soc.culture.japan for "social--culture--japan"
Remote Login & File Transfer:
Introduction to telnet:
Telnet is the protocol used to establish a login session on a remote computer on the network. While many computers on the Internet require users to have authorization, others are open to the public and can be logged onto with telnet. Telnet is not a method to transfer files from one machine to another, but rather is a way to remotely connect to another system with priveleges to run specific programs on that system. Some uses of the Telnet protocol include:
connecting to a library catalog to search that library's collection connecting to a location that allows public priveleges to search its campus information system connecting to a location that gives you an up-to-the minute weather report
Basic Telnet Commands
open - establishes a connection to the specified host.close - closes an open connection and leaves you in the telnet software quit - closes any open telnet sessions and exits the telnet software. When using a telnet program like NCSA Telnet, you invoke these commands by way of pull-down menus or command keys.
Introduction to FTP, File Transfer Protocol:
Basic commands in FTP:
To do FTP, a user invokes one of two commands:
get the command for transferring a file from another server to your own computer.
put the command for moving a file from your computer to another one.
Who can do FTP? Anonymous vs. authorized priveleges
On many servers, called anonymous FTP servers, anyone can do FTP. All that is required to login is a username (anonymous) and a password (your e-mail address). To get an idea of the many resources available via FTP, you can look at this selected list of FTP servers.
Other servers require you to be a registered "authorized" user before you're permitted to do FTP. In such a case, you would need to contact the system operator for the server you wish to access, and request an authorization and a password. Getting an authorization and password might mean that you can get and put only to specific subdirectories on that server.
Resources available to you via FTP
When you download freeware, the author continues to carry the copyright to the software, but permits you to use the program for free. You can share freeware with others, as long as you don't sell it.
When you download public domain software, you can use it freely. The creator carries no copyright, and has released it for anyone to use. There are no limits on distribution or sale--and anyone can modify the program.
When you download shareware, the author continues to carry the copyright to the software, but you're permitted short-term use of the program for evaluation purposes.
At the end of evaluation period, you must either pay the copyright holder for the program or destroy all copies you've made of it.
Introduction to Gopher:
Gopher is a client/server system that allows you to access many Internet resources simply by making selections from a sequence of menus. Each time you make a selection, Gopher carries out your request to the computer that contains the information and "serves" it up. For example, if you select a menu item that represents a text file, Gopher will get that file--wherever it happens to be--and display it for you. As you use Gopher, some menu items lead to other menus. If you choose one of these, Gopher will retrieve the new menu and display it for you. Thus you can move from menu to menu, using only a few key strokes or a mouse to navigate. The power of Gopher is that the resources listed in a menu may be anywhere on the Internet. As Gopher connects to computers to comply with your menu selection, you don't need to be preoccupied with the behind-the-scenes work of connecting to and disconnecting from these various computers. Gopher does this for you without your even needing to be aware of it. This automatic connecting makes Gopher popular and useful.
Where did Gopher come from?
"Born" in April 1991, gopher began as a project at the Microcomputer, Workstation, and Networks Center at the University of Minnesota to help people on campus get answers to computer-related questions. At the time, the computer center staff had accumulated answers to thousands of questions regarding computers and software.
What was needed was an easy and efficient way to deliver this information to students, faculty and staff. Thus, the creation of Gopher reaffirms the adage that necessity is the mother of invention.
Why is it called Gopher?
The name "Gopher" is appropriate for three reasons:
1.Just as a real gopher successfully navigates beneath the prairie, the Internet Gopher tunnels through the invisible paths of the Internet to help you find the information you want.
2.The name refers to someone who fetches things or provides service for other people.
3.The Golden Gopher is the mascot of the University of Minnesota.
Introduction to the World Wide Web
The World Wide Web (also referred to as WWW or W3) is the fastest growing area of the Internet. While gopher was an important step in allowing users to "browse" through the Internet's vast resources, the World Wide Web has raised excitement about the Internet to new heights.
What makes the World Wide Web appealing and innovative is its use of hypertext as a way of linking documents to each other. A highlighted word or phrase in one document acts as a pointer to another document that amplifies or relates to the first document. When looking at a WWW document, the reader doesn't have to follow every pointer, or link (also called a hypertext link), only those that look interesting or useful. In this way, the user tailors the experience to suit his or her needs or interests. The other very appealing aspect of the World Wide Web is the use of graphics and sound capabilities. Documents on the WWW include text, but they may also include still images, video, and audio for a very exciting presentation. People who create WWW documents often include a photograph of themselves along with detailed professional information and personal interests. (This is often called a person's home page.)
What makes the WWW work?
WWW is another example of client/server computing. Each time a link is followed, the client is requesting a document (or graphic or sound file) from a server (also called a Web server) that's part of the World Wide Web that "serves" up the document. The server uses a protocol called HTTP or HyperText Transport Protocol. The standard for creating hypertext documents for the WWW is HyperText Markup Language or HTML. HTML essentially codes plain text documents so they can be viewed on the Web.
Uniform Resource Locators, or URLs:
A Uniform Resource Locator, or URL is the address of a document you'll find on the WWW. Your WWW browser interprets the information in the URL in order to connect to the proper Internet server and to retrieve your desired document. Each time you click on a hyperlink in a WWW document, you're actually instructing your browser to find the URL that's embedded within the hyperlink.
The elements in a URL:Protocol://server's address/filename
Hypertext protocol: http://www.aucegypt.edu
Gopher protocol: gopher://gopher.umm.tc.edu
File Transfer Protocol: ftp://ftp.dartmouth.edu
Telnet Protocol: telnet://pac.carl.org
News Protocol: news:alt.rock-n-roll.stones
WWW Clients, or "Broswers":
The program you use to access the WWW is known as a browser because it "browses" the WWW and requests these hypertext documents. Browsers can be graphical, like Netscape and Mosaic, allowing you to see and hear the graphics and audio; text-only browsers (i.e., those with no sound or graphics capability) are also available. All of these programs understand
http and other Internet protocols such as FTP, gopher, mail, and news, making the WWW a kind of "one stop shopping" for Internet users.
Internet Relay Chat (IRC), the other method for Internet conversation, is less common than talk because someone must set up the Chat before others can join in. Chat sessions allow many users to join in the same free-form conversation, usually centered around a discussion topic. When users see a topic that interests them, they type a command to join and then type another command to choose a nickname. Nicknames allow people in the session to find you on IRC Networks or Channels.
A look at search engines:
The World Wide Web is "indexed" through the use of search engines, which are also referred to as "spiders," "robots," "crawlers," or "worms". These search engines comb through the Web documents, identifying text that is the basis for keyword searching. Each search engine works in a different way. Some engines scan for information in the title or header of the document; others look at the bold "headings" on the page for their information. The fact that search engines gather information differently means that each will probably yield different results. Therefore, it's wise to try more than one search engine when doing Web searching.
The list below lists several search engines and how each one gathers information, plus resources that evaluate the search engines.
Selected Search Engines (listed alphabetically)
Alta Vista, maintained by The Digital Equipment Corp., indexes the full text of over 16 million pages including newsgroups. Check out the Alta Vista Tips page.
Excite includes approximately 1.5 million indexed pages, including newsgroups. Check out the Excite NetSearch handbook.
InfoSeek Net Search
Indexes full text of web pages, including selected newsgroups and electronic journals.
Just under one-half million pages indexed. Check out the InfoSeek Search Tips.
As of December 1995, the Inktomi search engine offers a database of approximately 2.8 million indexed Web documents and promises very fast search retrievals. Results are ranked in order of how many of your searched terms are used on the retrieved pages.
Lycos indexes web pages (1.5 million +), web page titles, headings, subheadings, URLs, and significant text.
Search results are returned in a ranked order.
Magellan indexes over 80,000 web sites. Search results are ranked and annotated.
Open Text Index
Indexes full text of approximately 1.3 million pages. Check out the Open Text Help pages for tips on using this search engine.
Maintained by America Online, WebCrawler indexes over 200,000 pages on approximately 75,000 web servers. URLs, titles, and document content are indexed.
WWWW -- World Wide Web Worm
Approximately 250,000 indexed pages; indexed content includes hypertext, URLs, and document titles.
A favorite directory and search engine, Yahoo has organized over 80,000 Web sites (including newsgroups) into 14 broad categories. Yahoo also maintains a comprehensive list of links to Yahoo - Computers and Internet:Internet:World Wide Web: Searching the Web other web search engines, indexes, and guides.
Finally the internet is a huge source of information in all fields of knowledge.
Datum will take your hand through this incredible world of
information to get what you need in a fast, reliable
and professional way.
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All the international students who are planning for masters in USA need to take a test that proves that they can live in the USA without any issues
All the international students who are planning for masters in USA need to take a test that proves that they can live in the USA without any issues. The test is referred to as TOEFL. Each university has got its own TOEFL cutoff. Many find it difficult to score high in To elf as their mother tongue is not English and due to regional influence. These are the TOEFL tips that would help anyone score a fortune in TOEFL
TOEFL READING TIPS - Most importantly, improve your vocabulary. This is required because you may encounter very complex words in the paragraph. If you know the meaning of the word, scoring high in this section is a piece of cake - Get a glimpse of the whole paragraph instead of reading through each sentence thoroughly - Practice reading topics covering various niches like education, geography , history etc in newspapers and magazines
TOEFL WRITING TIPS - Practice questions located at the end of books - While writing articles, try to make use of new words that you have learnt recently. Also while practicing, see that it is a familiar topic. - Whenever you are staring something, support it with any form of evidence. - Before starting, make a note of all your ideas and pen them down later. This technique is referred to as pre writing - Learn all the punctuation conventions properly before attempting - Ask your lecturers to evaluate your paragraphs and articles
TOEFL LISTENING TIPS - Keep watching more English movies. There are hundreds of them around. If you are a bit poor at listening, make use of subtitles during the initial stages. You will gradually understand the language flow - Focus on the basic idea while listening to an article. The main idea is focused at the beginning. So, pay attention at the beginning and you can easily understand the rest - Focus on examples given. This would give you a clear idea of the topic - If unfamiliar vocabulary is used, try to get the meaning based on the situation and context. - Try to talk in English to as many as you could. This would help you understand different accents. - Make notes of the basic idea and important topics related to the paragraph. You are allowed to take notes during the test - Frame a summary of the paragraph and note it down - If nothing works out, make guesses since there are no negative marks!
TOEFL SPEAKING TIPS - Read one paragraph from newspaper everyday and try to summarize it on your own and speak about it in your style - Take some random topics and speak about them. Speak about positive as well as negative aspects - You should be able to frame conclusions for any topic chosen. This comes through practice - Ask your friends and others to evaluate you. Make them listen to you directly or your recordings and collect feedback - Keep tracking your progress regularly These are few TOEFL reading, writing, listening and speaking tips that would definitely help you score a fortune in TOEFL!
20 TOEFL Tips
- Familiarize yourself with the TOEFL format
Most countries now offer the Internet based TOEFL (iBT). A few offer only the paper-based test (PBT). Make sure you find out which test you will be taking before you start studying for the TOEFL. You cannot choose to take the paper based test if your country offers the iBT. One reason people experience exam stress is because they don't know what to expect before a test. Prevent stress on exam day by studying the format of the test in detail. ETS has very clear standards about the format of their test. This is why it is called a "standardized" test.
- Research TOEFL score requirements
The TOEFL is required for any non-native English student who wants to go to a post-secondary school in the United States. Most people take the TOEFL in order to apply to a specific school or program. Before you begin studying, find out what the requirements are for the schools you are interested in going to. Remember that the scores for the paper based test are different than the scores for the iBT. Some schools will look at your scores from different sections. Each iBT section is scored out of 30. Many universities expect you to achieve higher writing skills than speaking skills. TOEFL scores are only valid for two years.
- Learn academic English
TOEFL is used for a different purpose than other ESL tests. The TOEFL measures your ability to succeed in an American university or college. Other English-speaking countries also require TOEFL scores as a prerequisite for admission. You don't have to know about the business world as you do in the TOEIC test. Instead, you should concentrate on studying language that you would hear and see on campus and in the classroom. In other words, you should read textbooks, encyclopaedias, journals and research articles rather than advertisements and resumes. You won't need to know any background information about certain subjects, but it will help you to become familiar with the presentation and language used in academic material. You should also watch modern television and movies. If you have a friend who goes to an English university, go to class with him as often as you can. Borrow his books and hang out with his friends.
- Use practice tests
The best way to prepare for the TOEFL is to practise doing the tests. If you are taking a TOEFL class, your teacher will provide you with plenty of material. If you are studying for the TOEFL on your own, you will have to purchase a few key resources. Find a textbook that has exercises, vocabulary, practice tests, CDs, and explanatory answers. You might not want to work through a book from front to back. Work on the sections that you find most challenging. Don't just rely on one book. You might have a book that is much easier than the official TOEFL. Look for free samples on the Internet to supplement your textbook. Make sure the question types are up to date.
- Find a mentor
A reliable native English teacher who knows a lot about the TOEFL is one of the best resources a student can have. You will have many questions that your textbook can't answer for you. Frustrated students often give up. It is important that you have someone who will answer your questions and encourage you when you feel down. If you cannot afford a teacher or a tutor, find a student who has studied for the test before. Sometimes other students can give you excellent hints and help you with grammar questions. You might be able to help other students with their questions too. Teaching another person is a great way to learn. If you use Twitter, search for "TOEFL". You will find teachers and students to follow and network with. Join the TOEFL Group on MyEC. Provide support to others and share tips on finding free practice tests.
- Build up your stamina
The TOEFL test takes a long time to write. If you are taking the paper based test it will take you about 2.5 hours. The iBT is much longer. You can expect to be at the computer for 4 hours. Many students have an attention span of about two hours. This is the maximum length of most classes. After this amount of time performance starts to weaken. If you keep your study sessions to one or two hours, your brain will not be prepared to work for four. Start off with short study sessions, and work up to longer ones. It is absolutely necessary that you get a good night's sleep before this test. You cannot afford to be tired.
- Arrive prepared
If you arrive at the test centre with all of the things you need, you will feel calm and ready. When you are nervous, your memory does not work as well. Make sure you know exactly how to get to the test centre and where you can park. Bring the correct amount of money for parking. If you are writing the paper based test, you should have a number of pencils, a pencil sharpener and a few erasers that don't smudge. It is also important that your identification looks valid. If you have had problems with your ID before, make sure to bring a backup photo. Don't forget any paper work that ETS sends you to prove that you have registered.
- Pace yourself
Plan to arrive at the test centre at least 30 minutes ahead of time. Wear a watch. This is especially important if you are taking the paper based test. Some exam rooms do not have clocks. The iBT has a clock on the screen, however, you should still wear a watch to make sure that you arrive on time! During the exam, watch your time very closely. Many students do poorly on the TOEFL because they spend too much time on difficult questions. There is no break between the Reading and Listening section. You will get a ten minute break after the first half before the Speaking section. You will only have a short time to write the essay. Spend some time planning and checking your writing.
- Improve your typing skills
You will have to fill out your answers on the computer and type your essay. If you rely on a few fingers to type, consider improving your typing skills before taking the TOEFL. Make sure that you are confident typing on a QWERTY keyboard. If you aren't, search for typing practice drills online. Even if your typing skills are strong, try doing practice tests on other computers. Some students get so used to their own computer that they get nervous when they have to type on a new keyboard or use a different mouse on test day.
- Become an expert note taker
You will be able to take notes in each section as you take the TOEFL iBT. Note taking is allowed because it is an important skill you need for taking university or college courses. As you study, practise taking notes on the main idea of what you read and hear as well as on the main details. Do this throughout your day as you listen to news reports, read websites, and watch TV. Create your own shorthand for frequently used words and phrases.
- Answer every question
Never leave a question blank. Eliminate all of the answers you know are wrong and then make an educated guess. You have a 25% chance of getting the correct answer. When you finish a section or question, try to put it out of your mind. Whether you are reading, listening, or answering a question, put all of your concentration on the task at hand.
- Secrets for the Reading section
The iBT does not test grammar separately as previous TOEFL tests did. You will still need to prove that you have a strong grasp of grammar in the speaking and writing sections. It is helpful to familiarize yourself with key academic vocabulary. There are helpful textbooks for this purpose. Keep in mind that you don't need to know every word in a reading passage to answer the questions. Practise reading without a dictionary close by. When it comes to the questions, concentrate on the areas that the questions pertain to. Skim through the passage, read the questions, then read for more detail. The questions usually come in the order they appear in the passage. Anticipate the type of questions you will be asked in this section. Many of the readings have a main idea question. You will be asked at least two vocabulary questions from each reading. You will also be asked some detailed questions and some inference questions. You will not have time to reread a whole passage. Share your own secrets for the TOEFL Reading section here.
- Secrets for the Listening section
When you are practising for the listening sections, don't play the tape or CD more than once. On the real test you will only hear everything once. You have to train your ears to listen fully the first time. During the real exam, don't look back at a listening question after you have decided on an answer. You cannot change it. The clock will not start running until you start the answers. Learn to listen for main ideas, presentation (compare/contrast etc.), and key details. Share your own secrets for TOEFL listening section here.
- Secrets for the Speaking section
It is okay to hesitate for a moment or two when it is time to respond. However, it is best to fill as much of the time as possible with your response. If you have a few extra seconds you can sum things up in a short conclusion. You will lose marks for poor pronunciation, so don't try to use big words that you can't say properly. You will also lose marks for improper use of vocabulary and idioms. Make sure you know how to use an expression properly before you try to use it on the exam. Share your own secrets for the TOEFL Speaking section here.
- Secrets for the Writing section
Don't forget that you will have to make connections in the first part of the Writing section. Memorize phrases from practice tests that show you how to do this. The most important thing is to keep your writing simple and clear. You will not have access to a spell check function. Don't use vocabulary and punctuation that you are unsure of. Spend some time planning your essay before you write it. Your outline will save you time in the long run. When you practise for the essay, find a format that you are comfortable with. Use this format every time. For example, your thesis might always be in the third sentence of your introduction. You might always end your conclusion with a question. Make sure to use lots of examples to support your essay. Transitional words and phrases will make your writing easier to read. Memorize a list of these and practise typing them. Always leave time to review what you have written. Read your essay silently in your head as you check it. Share your own secrets for the TOEFL Writing section here.
- Strengthen all 4 skills
Some people make the mistake of taking the test too soon. Perhaps your reading, listening, and writing skills are ready, but your speaking skills still need work. If you do very poorly on one section of the test, you will have to retake the entire test. You can't redo one section. Make sure that you are ready to take the whole test when you register.
- Dress in comfortable clothing
Dress in comfortable layers on test day. You never know whether or not the test room will be cold or warm. Wear your favourite shirt. When you feel comfortable you perform better! Don't wear tight clothing. You have to sit in one place for a long time. Though you want to be comfortable, do take time to look your best on test day. In other words, dress for success.
- Make sure to eat before the test
Four hours is a long time to go without a snack. You will not be allowed to bring any food or drinks into the test room with you. Eat a sensible meal before you take the test. Avoid too much caffeine as it will give you the shakes. Don't consume large amounts of sugar right before the test. You will get tired very quickly. Make sure that you have had plenty of water (but not too much as you will not want to waste time in the washroom).
- Refer to the official TOEFL website
The official TOEFL website (www.toefl.com) has a number of helpful things that you can download for free. They will supply you with a list of writing topics for the essay. You can also find important information about test centres and test updates. Many of your questions can be answered here. You will also get hints about which resources are worth buying.
- Reward yourself
After you take the exam, reward yourself for all of the time and effort you put into learning a second language! Treat yourself to a gift or a night out. No matter how well you did on the exam, you deserve a reward. Write down what your reward will be before you take the exam. It is always helpful to have something to look forward to.
Now that you have had a look at the TOEFL format, it's time to try a few practice questions. These examples are very similar to the questions you will see on the actual TOEFL (iBT). (If you find them too difficult, you might want to choose a TOEFL textbook or class that is designed for a lower level.) Make sure to read through the explanatory answers, even if you answer the questions correctly. They will give you important hints. Also, take time to listen to the sample student responses. For this practice session, you will be able to hear the listening scripts. Double click on the green arrow to listen. The transcripts for each listening passage or dialogue also appear after the question or response in red. The parts that you read on the TOEFL test will appear in blue. When you have finished Sections 1-4, read through these 20 TOEFL tips.
The LCD screen is pretty impressive. It has a three inch LCD screen with 900,000 pixels. Menus are straightforward to deal with and comprehend and "Live View" will surely impress you if this is the 1st time you own a DSLR with this feature. The excellent aspects - The Canon 5D Mk2 is really an extremely beneficial option in case you desire to purchase a DSLR camera which is full-frame. I utilized to have a Canon 1DS Mk2, but this new model is additional sensitive to light by a minimum of 1 F-stop. It also has an accurate and quick auto focus system throughout single shot mode. Also the auto-exposure system is much more is far more accurate than the 1 on my former camera.
The Best Mobile Phone Deals are decided by a person depending on his needs and wants. The user can pick any offer that is suitable to him at the cheapest and most affordable rates and can thereby enjoy all the benefits of communication. A mobile is used in order to stay connected with the world around us. We use mobile phones for a number of purposes. They enable us to ensure connectivity worldwide and also help us entertain ourselves at times. The phones can now be used under cheaper and more affordable terms with the help of the Best Mobile Phone Deals. The deals offered to the public are wide and large and provide a huge diversity so that each person can pick up a plan that suits him the most. The user has to pick the best deal that appeals to him the most and which is in accordance to his desires.
|Sony Ericsson Cedar – the GreenHeart mobile phone|
|Friday, 26 November 2010 17:50|
Sony Ericsson Cedar is an efficient mobile phone with data connectivity of class 10, 32-48 kbps GPRS and 236.8 kbps EDGE. It also has a 3G data of 7.2 Mbps HSDPA and 2 Mbps HSUPA with Bluetooth v2.1 with A2DP and micro USB v2.0. Sony Ericsson Cedar is an efficient mobile phone with data connectivity of class 10, 32-48 kbps GPRS and 236.8 kbps EDGE. It also has a 3G data of 7.2 Mbps HSDPA and 2 Mbps HSUPA with Bluetooth v2.1 with A2DP and micro USB v2.0. This handset has dual network of 2G and 3G offering 850,900,1800,1900 GSM, 2100 HSDPA and 850,1900,2100 HSDPA. This mobile phone compactly measures 111 x 49 x 15.5 mm and weighs only 84 g making it very light and convenient handset for the user.
The new Sharp LC19SB27UT is really a 720p HD TV. It's a quite straightforward, no-nonsense TV model with an quick set up along with a quite user-friendly remote control. It is possible to mount the TV to a wall with a wall mount (which I did) that was also pretty effortless to do. This TV is an all black model. If you're currently shopping around for a modest HD TV for your guestroom, kitchen, bedroom, office or kid's room, you just need to get your hands on the Sharp LC19SB27UT. It's currently 1 of the very best mainstream 19-inch HD TV inside the market. This model is ideal for casual use, thanks to its quite inexpensive price tag, excellent performance and decent specs.
Have you ever experienced being robbed while you were sleeping or while you are away from your house and nobody is at home? Then the best thing for you to do in order for you to somehow combat thieves is to install an automated security system.
Have you ever experienced being robbed while you were sleeping or while you are away from your house and nobody is at home? Then the best thing for you to do in order for you to somehow combat thieves is to install an automated security system.
With automated security system, you will be notified when there are intrusion alerts in your house whenever and wherever you may be. All you have to do then is to view the live camera feeds in your home using a computer which has an internet access. Upon sending the alert, police are also being notified that there is an intrusion alert and they will immediately go to the location to check the status of the alert.
There are actually different ways of implementing automated security system at home. One of which is to install biometric security system. Biometric security system can be in the form of finger print or palm print.
If you have seen an automated security system before, you are most probably are already familiar with the typical procedures in validating the identity of the user. Typically, a user provides his fingerprint to a device and then the device checks if the fingerprint is listed on the database. If the name is on the database, the user is then granted access to the room or to a specific place.
There are actually a lot of ways on how to implement automation when it comes to the security of our own homes. But if you are having a hard time deciding on what particular form of automated security system that you want to implement, you should definitely consult or seek the help of an expert. With this, you may be able to choose wisely on the type of automated system which will suit your home.
Buyers Very best Tip No 1. Before anything else, you ought to be well aware of your desired Television size and if occupies your room leaving a space compliant to your preference. To do so, you might as well calculate the space which will be occupied by either your Liquid crystal display or Plasma Television, whichever you've chosen. Undoubtedly, television technology is undergoing an exceptionally rapid development and also the rapidity is up-to-the-minute with Plasma and Liquid crystal display TVs. Surely, the most recent season's products will outshine those models which were manufactured just the previous yr.
The messaging element of this phone gains a massive boost in the form of the physical keypad, a long time favourite of business users and heavy messagers. Located behind the screen, the sliding mechanism is well built, unlike many models available
The E7 from Nokia is an impressive smartphone that operates on the revamped Symbian V3 platform. Messaging fans will immediately be drawn to the slider styled physical keypad that this model boasts.
Thanks to a good range of connection options on offer, the E7 is a superb messaging tool. Regardless whether you are on the go or at home, you can be assured of a good connection to enable both the sending and receiving of both text messages and e mails. The phone is a 3G handset, which basically means when coverage is available, you can connect to the fastest mobile data transfer network available. If coverage is not available, the E7 boasts reliable alternatives in the form of GPRS and EDGE. Obviously the fastest online experience is gained when connected to a suitable WiFi network, and the unit supports B,G and N speeds. The messaging element of this phone gains a massive boost in the form of the physical keypad, a long time favourite of business users and heavy messagers. Located behind the screen, the sliding mechanism is well built, unlike many models available. The keypad itself feels responsive, and performs as well as the very best currently available. When using the virtual keypad, the size of the screen comes in handy, allowing the keyboard to be well spaced out and easy to use.
Like the popular N8 model, the Nokia E7 http://www.phoneslimited.co.uk/Nokia/E7.html scores highly in the style stakes. The combination of sleek lines and tidy aluminium finish not only make the phone look great, but give it the feel of a very expensive phone. The handsets display measures 4 inches, continuing the current trends of ever increasing screen sizes. Utilising cutting edge AMOLED technology, the phone produces a naturally rich colour tone, with deep blacks and natural white colours. This coupled with the excellent 640 x 360 pixel resolution produces a great image quality. Media features on the phone are pleasing. Still shots can be captured at an excellent 8 mega pixel standard, with a dual LED flash helping produce better result in lower light conditions. Video capture is even more pleasing, with stunning High Definition quality captured to the phones 16GB internal memory, or to an additional microSD card thanks to the available slot.
The Nokia E7 looks destined to be a massive hit with consumers everywhere. As a smartphone the model is superb, but throw in to the equation the well designed keypad and the impressive screen and you have a fairly complete mobile phone package. The Nokia E7 is coming soon and the Nokia N8 www.phoneslimited.co.uk/Nokia/N8.html is available now.
You'll find two critical elements picking the proper sort of Samsung Liquid crystal display Television set, Initial may be the sizing as well as the second is price. You do not should be an expert of tv field to decide on that is the most beneficial Samsung's collection Liquid crystal display Televisions should you know what terms which can be employed regularly. Samsung is among foremost electronics producers inside the globe that may be your decision. There are several new models of Samsung's sequence Liquid crystal display Televisions. Picking out the most effective tv at a price tag you'll be able to reach may be tough particularly you do not know what types or models which is ideal available for you.
Are you always disturbed by unwanted calls or messages at night? Or, do you constantly receive prank messages from unknown sender?
Saving money and getting the best service with your cell phones. Get the ultimate....Free phone service!
Free wireless phone service is a bonus in most people's lives in this troubled economy. You can save quite a bit just by making a few phone calls and asking. A news reporter was able to lower her bills by $318/year. She was able to secure better rates from her cell phone provider, local newspaper delivery, internet service, as well as her cable television bill. So how do you get free wireless phone service? Just call your carrier and discuss the options they can give you.
We all know we love to talk about negotiating. We've talked about purchasing a car, lowering your medical bills, getting a better insurance rate, and how to negotiate cheaper cell phone rates and eventually getting free wireless phone service. The secret to success in negotiating lower bills is really about being okay with hearing, "no," while also finding a way to make the other person say, "yes."
It's not about winning or losing. It's about going all the way to free wireless phone service. You'll need to find common ground and a solution where both parties win. The best way to do that is to listen, really listen to what the other person has to say about why the answer is no. Start by bringing up the bill in question and explaining that you have a question and believe the charges are too high. Listen closely to the response of the billing agent. At all costs, remain calm and cool, even if you don't like what you are hearing. I'm not saying don't be angry, I'm saying don't express your anger with aggression. Remember your goal...Free wireless phone service.
Answer the no's with your reasons why your phone bills are too high, even if it's just that you can't afford it right now and need a concession. Don't push to fast on the rep, but ease your way from one comment to another. Psychology today says, "If you never hear 'no,' when you negotiate, you haven't asked for enough." Getting to no gives you a place to start from where you can find enough common ground to get a yes. Certainly the representative can agree that a small payment is better than none. Now you're one step closer to free wireless phone service. Remember your goal.
BSE and NSE in India started the Mobile Trading operations during September 2010. This is expected to increase the trading volume substantially. The current online trading is only 15% which is expected to go up when 3G services are launched very soon. SEBI has issued several guidelines to the stock exchanges and the brokers to protect the investor interest.
BSE started mobile trading in India on 21st September 2010. This was followed by National Stock Exchange later. The members of these two stock exchanges are providing these facilities to their clients who can access the trading platform through their smart phones by entering a dedicated URL.
The stock exchanges have taken special care to provide high level security on this trading platform where the transactions are encrypted. The users will have their id and password and there will be a second level transaction password through a secured ID token. According to NSE guidelines, member brokers of the bourse will have to submit an application seeking permission to commence securities trading using wireless technology, which would be granted on a case-by-case basis. Once the Exchange grants approval, a broker can start providing this mobile trading facility to clients.
These mobile trading portals of the brokers will have features like market watch, order book, and account reports. This will make the trading simpler and easily accessible to clients even when they are on the move.
SEBI has issued guidelines vide its circular dated 27 August 2010, to the stock exchanges on mobile trading. The stock exchanges are asked to ensure that brokers comply with secure access, encryption and security of communication for internet based trading using wireless technology. The exchanges and brokers should take adequate measures for user identification, authentication and access control using means such as user-id, passwords, smart cards, biometric devices or other reliable means, to prevent misuse of facility by unauthorised persons.
According to SEBI, unique identification number as given in case of internet based trading shall be made applicable for mobile trading also. All transactions carried out in mobile trading need to be given a unique identifier number, '5′, in order to differentiate the orders from normal orders. In case of failure of the wireless network, alternative means of communication for placing orders should be available.
The brokerage firms need to communicate to their clients the risks, responsibilities and liabilities associated before providing the facility. As it may not be possible to give detailed information to the investor on a mobile phone, brokerages should ensure that minimum information may be given with addresses of the internet website where detailed information would be available.
SEBI directed that order confirmation, trade confirmation, modification and cancellation details should be provided to the user every day. Session login details should not be stored on the mobile phones. Network security protocols and interface standards should be as per prevalent industry standards and sound audit trails should be available
Do you have a portable color TV yet? Both old and young people are buying this latest entertainment device. Many brands have their own models. Today if you are looking to get it, try Casio portable color TV. Casio is a top electronic brand that many of you know.
Do you have a portable color TV yet? Both old and young people are buying this latest entertainment device. Many brands have their own models. Today if you are looking to get it, try Casio portable color TV. Casio is a top electronic brand that many of you know. It provides many different styles of transportable televisions. All you have to do is to choose the one you want. Before you can choose any item, it would help to evaluate your needs. Do you need a compact handheld television? This is a favorite choice for many young people.
If you have a teen child, perhaps you should give him or her one of these devices as a present. Many of them think having this tv is a pleasure. The first step is conducting a research. By doing it, you will come across product reviews. Your job is reading them carefully. Do you know why? From those reviews and testimonials, you can easily sort good products. Although Casio portable color TV styles are superior, not all of them would suit you. If you read what others think about each available product, then you can tell what is good for you.
As well, you can find it easy to choose a gift for your friend or relative. The best website to visit if you want reviews is Amazon. Here you can find products for sale as well. Each product has a description, features and review sections. Once you get yourself one of these Casio color TVs, you will find it irresistible. Viewing is fun than it is on typical old box televisions. Most of the small gadgets use batteries and it is up to you to make sure that they have a long life. Battery life is always a concern with other electronic devices as well.
This is actually another reason why you want to read reviews. By doing it, you can find out what others think about the batteries that a given portable television set uses. AAA batteries tend to be common and they have good quality. Another detail most gadgets have is an A/V input. This means that one can use a TV with VCRs, DVD players and even some cameras. Again, you have to read what others are saying, incase the item you want have these features. In addition, you should be cautious about the picture quality in terms of color brightness and contrast.
What is more, you have to compare product's prices and quality. You can get many affordable products today. Use the Internet fully and you will surely locate a good casio portable color tv www.portable-color-tv.org/casio-portable-color-tv/. If you want a more trendy style, then you might pay a little more money to have it. At the same time, you will enjoy carrying an elegant entertainment gadget. Most of the current Casio transportable televisions can be useful anywhere. Carry them during a boat cruise, a train or even a car trip. This is exactly the reason why this innovation is available today.
Traveling to France? Visiting a French speaking country? You'll have to learn French fast. Traveling to France? Visiting a French speaking country? You'll have to learn French fast. When touring to another country it is preferable to speak their major language. Speaking their native language will help you understand the culture as well as the people of the nation you are traveling to. It's also an excellent method of expressing them your respect for their tradition.
|Learn Spanish easily|
|Sunday, 28 November 2010 20:50|
Whether you enjoy talking, reading, or mastering challenges, you'll find all of them in learning Spanish. For many people, there's something inherently enjoyable about successfully speaking in another tongue.
Spanish is a widely used language. In fact, it is the second most natively spoken language in the world. Lots of people are learning spanish now. Be it to improve your skills and curriculum or just to travel and visit places like Mexico or Spain. It is true that anyone can visit those places without knowing even to say "Adiós", but it isn't nearly half as much fun.
Time and time again while traveling in Mexico, Central America and South America I have had doors opened to me simply because I speak Spanish, allowing me to see and do things that many other visitors do not.
But if you're in the United States and work in one of the helping professions including medicine and education, you'll find your opportunities expand by knowing Spanish. And wherever you live, if you're in any occupation that involves international trade, communications or tourism, you'll similarly find opportunities to use your new language skills.
Whether you enjoy talking, reading, or mastering challenges, you'll find all of them in learning Spanish. For many people, there's something inherently enjoyable about successfully speaking in another tongue. Perhaps that's one reason children sometimes speak in Pig Latin or device secret codes of their own. Although learning a language can be work, the efforts pay off quickly when you finally get to use your skills.
For many people, Spanish offers the most rewards with the least effort of any foreign language. It's never too late to begin learning.
You could start to look for an academy, or just start to learn right now http://learn.rocketlanguages.com/spanish/premium/index.php. But why don't starting by trying a free course? And what if this was one of the best Spanish learning courses? Give it a try http://learn.rocketlanguages.com/spanish/premium/index.php and you won't be disappointed.
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